Monday, 28 February 2011

A Definition of Mother Tongue in Punjabi

For the first time in my life, I've found a small explanation of mother tongue in Punjabi. I found it on this website. Below I'm posting the text transliterated into Roman Characters so that those unfamiliar with the script can read it:

Paidāish Yānī Jamāndrū Bolī

Jamāndrū zubān hī oh pehelī zubān hundī he jehḍī bagair kisī dūsrī zubān toṃ asar kabūl karan toṃ bace nūṃ ā jāndī he, te eho hī oh zubān hundī he jehede vic ām taur te soceā jāndā he. Beher hāl eh hakīkat he kī jeheḍī zubān vic vi sahī bolaṇ dā kasad hove ose hī zubān vic socṇā vī cāhīdā he. Kheālāt dī zubān sirf oho hī ik hundī he jeheḍī ohdī jamāndrū yānī peheli zubān hundī he cāhe oh angrez bacca hī kiyoṃ nā hove jeheḍā pehelī zubān angrezī sikh ke panj ceṃ sāl dī umar de magroṃ lagātār panjābī bolaṇ lag jāve (te fer kisī dūjī zubān dī havā ohnū nā lage) tāṃ panjābī hī usdī jamāndrū yā pehelī zubān kahāvegī te panjābī vic hī oh socegā.

Here's a translation of the above paragraph:

Mother Tongue

Mother tongue is the first language that a child learns prior to being influenced by other languages and it's the same language in which a person usually thinks. Meanwhile, a reality is: one ought to think in the language in which one can express himself well. More than often one only thinks in the language that is his or her mother tongue; this is true even in case of an English child who learns English till the age of five or six and then starts speaking Punjabi. In that case, if the child doesn't have a contact with any language other than Punjabi, Punjabi will become his mother tongue.

I know this translation isn't perfect and it's because I don't know what asar and kasad mean and I find it hard to translate Paidāish Yānī Jamāndrū Bolī into English.

Sunday, 27 February 2011

English Written Fonetikalee!

Today, after reading this post at Stephen's blog I was inspired to develop my own phonetic system for transliterating English into Latin characters in a sensible manner. English looks really weird, not to mention ugly too, when written phonetically!

Still, I had fun when I put this stuff taken from the Jan-Feb issue of BBC Knowledge in Fonetik Inglish. See for yourself if you can make a sense out of it:

Wat meiks Chweeing Gamm Söu Stiki?

Wail mäni kleim dhät chweeing gamm helps dhem riläx, traing tuh praiz öupan a lamp ov dha staff frawm dha botam ov a shu or a chaild's heia iz not söu kahlming. Dha gamm stiks fo dha seim reezan äz möust glooz: iläktrostätik intaräkshans bitween molekiulz, or Van der Waals föursis. Chweening gamm is söu plaiabal, it flöus into evari maikrosköupik krivis, wich inkreezis dha kontäkt eiria fo Van der Walls aträkshan. Wet chweeing gamm dazant stik tuh ior fingar bikawz wahtar molekiulz fäsan tu dha gamm's söfeis, bloking dha stiki molekiulz.

Friday, 18 February 2011

Understanding Sambahsa Pronouns 2

Hi again! This time, our focus will be on understanding the pronouns in the third and fourth categories in Sambahsa. So let's begin with the third category or His-Her pronouns.

Imagine a ten-year-old who starts playing with the computer of his elder sister. What will be the reaction of the elder sister: "Hey! It's my computer!" or "Hey! It's I computer!"?

Again, it wouldn't be I computer but my computer because that's how English works. I-We pronouns change into His-Her pronouns when you want to show you own something or have a relation to someone, as in 'my brother' or 'my friend.'

The same happens in Sambahsa too! So the sister of the ten-year-old would say this in Sambahsa:

Hey! Tod est mien computer.
Hey! That's my computer.

Hey! Tod est noster* computer.
Hey! That's our computer.

Hey! Tod est tien computer.
Hey! That's your (one person's) computer.

Hey! Tod est voster* computer.
Hey! That's your (a group's) computer.

Hey! Tod est eys computer.
Hey! That's his computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

Hey! Tod est ays computer.
Hey! That's her computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

Hey! Tod est ids computer.
Hey! That's its (say a robot) computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer

Hey! Tod est el computer.
Hey! That's his (an alien's) computer.

Do you remember an alien is someone whose gender isn't known? If not, having a quick look at  Understanding Sambahsa Pronouns 1 will help you.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

* = Notice that in English I haven't written that is but have used its short form: that's. In Sambahsa, noster and voster have their short forms too: nies and vies. There is no difference whatsoever in their meanings and it's all upon you to decide which form to use.

Here's a table of His-Her pronouns:

Mien- My; Noster or Nies - Our

Tien - Your; Voster or Vies - Your

Eys - His; Ir - Thier (males)

Ays - Her; Ir - Their (females)

Ids - Its; Ir - Their (robots')

Els - X's (alien's) ; Ir - XX's (aliens')

Okay! So let's move on to the fourth category of pronouns or To-him To-her pronouns. Suppose Fatima comes to you to ask for a book and you give her the book. How would you put that in English: 'I gave Fatima a book.' or 'I gave a book to Fatima.'?

In this case, both sentences are correct. In Sambahsa, when someone receives something or is directly affected by what you do, there's a special pronoun for that someone. Grammarians would express it this way: the recipient of direct object.

Don't worry if you don't understand that. The following sentences will help you get clearer about these fourth category pronouns:

Is daht mi un buk.
He gives (to) me a book.

Is daht nos un buk.
He give (to) us a book.

Is daht tib un buk.
He gives (to) you a book.

Is daht vos un buk.
He gives (to) you (you are a group) a book.

Is daht ei un buk.
He gives (to) him a book.

Is daht ibs un buk.
He gives (to) them (males) a book.

Is daht ay un buk.
He gives (to) her a book.

Is daht iabs un buk.
He gives (to) them (females) a book.

Is daht ei un buk.
He gives (to) it (a robot) a book.

Is daht ibs un buk.
He gives (to) them (robots) a book.

Is daht al un buk.
He gives (to) X (an alien) a book.

Is daht im un buk.
He gives (to) XX (aliens) a book.

To is redundant in English sentences but in Sambahsa, it's shown by the use of fourth category of pronouns or To-him To-her pronouns.

Again, here's a table of these pronouns:

Mi - (to) Me; Nos - (to) Us

Tib - (to) You; Vos - (to) You

Ei - (to) Him; Ibs - (to) Them

Ay - (to) Her; Iabs - (to) Them

Ei - (to) It; Ibs - (to) Them

Al - (to) X; Im - (to) XX

And with this, we are done with the simple pronouns. In the subsequent posts I'll try to explain Demonstrative (this, that) pronouns and Interrogative (who, what) pronouns.

Thursday, 17 February 2011

Understanding Sambahsa Pronouns 1

If you are a linguist or someone comfortable with grammatical terms such as accusative, dative, genitive and so on, the fifth chapter in the Sambahsa Primer in English explains very well how pronouns work in the language. 

On the other hand, if you're like me, someone who isn't very competent at languages and prefers to learn through examples than cramming rules, that material is enough to scare you away thinking that it's too tough a language.

Fortunately, I managed to learn the pronouns and  that became possible only through kind help from Dr. Olivier Simon. If it weren't for him, I don't think I'd have been able to understand pronouns well and I might even have quit learning the language. 

To thank that guy, here's a small attempt from my side to provide an explanation of Sambahsa pronouns  and make it easier for non-grammarians to understand them. So without further ado, let's begin:

Pronouns in Sambahsa are divided into four categories and the first category of pronouns are I-WE pronouns. It means:

Ego - I; Wey - We

Tu - You; Yu - You

Is - He; Ies - They

Ia - She; Ias - They

Id - It; Ia - They

El -X; I - XX

Simple enough? Yeah, but why are there two you-s, three they-s? and what are the meanings of X and XX?

The English you can be translated as either tu or yu in Sambahsa. Now, if you are talking to a close friend or a family member, you would use tu. But, if there are more than one person you are talking to or you are at a business meeting, addressing others with yu shows etiquette.

The difference between the three they-s in Sambahsa is this: Ies denotes more than one male, Ias more than a female and Ia stands for the more than one non-living object.

Finally, el and i are a little tricky. Suppose you want to tell a friend that you saw an alien the previous night. Which pronoun: he, she or it, would you use? In English you can use either he or it but in Sambahsa, there is a special pronoun for these cases: el and its plural i. These are used when you aren't sure of the gender of an object or being.

I read a long time ago that it's easier to remember sentences than words so here are a few sample sentences:

Ego bahm.
I speak.

Wey bahmos.
We speak.

Tu bahs.
You speak.

Yu bahte.
You speak.

Is baht.
He speaks.

Ies bahnt.
They (males) speak.

Ia baht.
 She speaks.

Ias bahnt.
They (females) speak.

Id baht.
It speaks.

Ia bahnt.
They (neuter objects) speak.

El baht.
X speaks.

I bahnt.
They (objects or beings of unspecified gender) speak.

That wasn't very difficult, I believe. If you aren't already exhausted by now, let's have a look at the second category of pronouns or HIM-HER pronouns before we finish this post.

Okay, there are good people to be found everywhere and these good people love others around them. One of those good people is my grandmother Gurjeet Kaur Anand. How will I tell you that my grandmother loves me? Will I say: Mamma (as I call her) loves I or Mamma loves me? Of course, I'll use the second sentence because it sounds more correct!

The same thing happens in Sambahsa too. Just like in English, I-We pronouns change into Him-Her pronouns in certain sentences and here's how it happens:

Mamma lieubht me.
Mamma loves me.

Mamma lieubht nos.
Mamma loves us.

Mamma lieubht te.
Mamma loves you.

Mamma lieubht vos.
Mamma loves you.

Mamma lieubht iom.
Mamma loves him.

Mamma lieubht iens.
Mamma loves them (males).

Mamma lieubht iam.
Mamma loves her.

Mamma lieubht ians.
Mamma loves them (females).

Mamma lieubht id.
Mamma loves it.

Mamma lieubht ia.
Mamma loves them. (neuter objects; say books)

Mamma lieubht el.
Mamma loves X. (X may be an alien!)

Mamma lieubht i.
Mamma loves X. (there may be more than one alien.)

So, can you guess the meanings of me, him, her etc from the sentences? Just to be sure you are correct, match them with the table below:

Me - Me; Nos - Us

Te - You; Vos - You

Iom - Him; Iens - Them

Iam - Her; Ians - Them

Id - It; Ia - Them

El - Xy; I - XXy

How many did you get correct?!!

That's it for this time. In the next post, I'll try to cover the next two categories and then will try to continue with other grammar points as I progress in my studies.

Desinging Romanmukhi (Romanmuḣī) to Fall Asleep

It's not a serious a post. I was just finding it hard to fall asleep so I switched on the computer and started searching for Latin characters with diacritics in order to find enough to make a one-to-one relationship between the sounds in Punjabi and the letters of the Roman script.

Here's what I've come up with:

Sambahsa kī hē?
Sambahsa ik aṇtar-rāṡṫri madadgār ḃāṡā hē.

(What is Sambahsa?
Sambahsa is an international auxiliary language.)

Aṇtar-rāṡṫri madadgār ḃāṡā (AMḂ) kī hundī hē?
Ik AMḂ ik ajēhī ḃāṡā hundī hē jo kī ajēhē lokāṇ, jinā dī koyī sāṇżī ḃāṡā nahī hē, de viċ bolċāl layī vartī jāndī hē.

(What is an international auxiliary language?
An IAL is a neutral language designed to be used by people having no common tongue to communicate amongst themselves.)

Kī Sambahsa iklotī AMḂ hē?
Bilkul nahī. Dunyā viċ is vakat karīb unīāṇ hī AMḂ han jinīāṇ kī kudratī ḃāṡāvāṇ.


(Is Sambahsa the only language of its kind?
Certainly not. There are almost as many IALs in the world as there are natural languages.
)

Mēṇ Sambahsa kioṇ siḣāṇ?
Is svāl muṡkil hē. Is svāl nū is vakat rationalize karnā muṡkil hē. Je mēṇ is svāl nū rationalize kitā tāṇ tusī ẓaṭṭ hī usdā toṙ laḃ lavoge. Mēṇ is ḃāṡā nū is karke siḣ rehāṇ hāṇ kioṇkī mēnū is nāl pyār ho geyā hē.

(Why should I learn Sambahsa?
Well, that's a tough question! I wouldn't rationalize it because then you would quickly come up with a counter argument. I'm learning it because I'm enjoying doing it.)

Instead of listing the phonetic values of these letters, I've opted for the easy way out: I've simply translated the text into English assuming that it'd be enough to assist a Punjabi speaker to guess how these letters are pronounced.

Monday, 14 February 2011

R Srikant and his Conlang Lin

Lin! The creator of this Chinese sounding auxlang is R Srikant, another conlanger from India. According to his website, he was working at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in 2001. The website hasn't been updated for a decade so I don't know where he's now but even this little information is enough to dispel my earlier belief that Nikhil Sinha is the only conlanger in this country.

Lin was never designed to become an IAL. Instead, the creator defines his language as a "spatially compact lang" which means the language aims to convey thoughts by taking as less space as possible.

The 71 letter orthography of Lin is based on the Roman alphabet. There are no accented letters and no special letters in the sense of natural languages. 

The author of language has been able to design the orthography by giving different phonetic values to lower case and upper case letters. Also, the numbers from zero to nine and these eight signs - +, =, \, |, :, *, ^ and % - are treated as separate letters in Lin and thus have their own phonetic values. The creator didn't even spare the empty space between two letters; even it is pronounced in some cases. 

Lin looks more like a computer algorithm then a real 'language.' At first, I thought Lin is like Lojban but I proved to be wrong. There are some fundamental differences between the two languages and the most important, I think, is: Lojban is designed to be as precise as possible but because Lin's sole aim is to achieve brevity, ambiguity has crept into the language. 

A word in Lin has, on an average, at least half a dozen meanings. The correct meaning is inferred from the context. To cite an example, the word 'a' in Lin can mean anything of these: good, beautiful, deep, God, love, beginning and help grant. In some cases, a word possesses as many as ten different meanings.

A grammar of Lin can be found on this webpage on the website of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. Now let's have a look at three sample sentences from the grammar and see how much less of a space they occupy:

_u f+1_ 
Whom do you fear?

px v u
A bird sees you.

i N px)f+u
I know the bird that fears you.

Wow! It is economical but I doubt if I'll ever be able to learn it. I couldn't find any literature, the vocabulary is still small and I believe an average learner would require more grammatical explanations than are currently available on the website mentioned above.

Sunday, 13 February 2011

Nikhil Sinha, the Only(?) Indian Conlanger, and his Conlangs

I accidently found Esperanto a couple of years back. I was excited to know it's unlike any other language in the world. It was a 'constructed language'. (Some prefer to call it an 'auxlang'.) To find more about Esperanto, I occasionaly went to cyber cafes. During one of those visits, I came across another constructed language which, it seemed to me, incorporated the grammar of Esperanto in it. The only difference, I could figure out, was in the choice of roots. The European roots were swapped with more familiar Sanskrit and Hindi words. I didn't bother much about the language because I thought it was just a copy cat project and wasn't worth having a look. After that, I forgot the name of the language; the only thing that wasn't erased from my memory was the first name of the creator - Nikhil.

Today morning, for no particular reason, I decided to find out what happened of Nikhil and his project. At first it was difficult to find information about him and his conlangs because Nikhil is such a common name in India. But within a few minutes, I did manage to Google out his real name - Nikhil Sinha. He was 15 in 2003 so he must be 22 or 23 by now. I couldn't find more about him but more Googling did reveal that he is the "only" conlanger from India. 

Coming to his languages, he has created four artlangs: Nihilosk, Indika, Gokim and Cannic.

1. Nihilosk: According to this website, Nikhil's first creation was Nihilosc. "The first conlang is not akin to any spoken language. It is just made up." and the name of the language, Nihilosc, is a "corruption" of his name.

Here's what the language looks like:

Nihiloscon iso impiyoan raquaon greinoas. Etada Nihiloscon epruiboanus. Etadaan diseisenciaon Nikilon Sinhaon greinoas.

(Nihilosc is a simple language. I'm learning Nihilosc. My name is Nikhil Sinha.)

Unfortunately, I have no idea on how to pronounce it or how it works because the website that contained information about it was hosted on Yahoo Geocities which is no longer available.

2. Indika: This was perhaps the language I saw then. This language is based on Esperanto, English, Hindi and Sanskrit. I gather from the sample sentences I've found that the grammar borrows much from Esperanto and the role of the rest three is confined to lending words.

Indikao asas un asana linguao. Mi sikoagas Indikao. Mia namo asas Nikilo Sinhao.

(Indika is a simple language. I'm learning Indika. My name is Nikhil Sinha.)

Here, asas seems to have been borrowed from Ido and the verb ending -as, adjective ending -a, noun ending -o, the first person pronoun mi and first person possessive pronoun mia, clearly show how much Esperanto has affected the grammar of Indika.

The roots asan-, sikoaga- and nam- are from Hindi or Sanskrit and they mean 'easy', 'learn' and 'name' respectively.

You can find nine sentences, including the three mentioned above, in both languages here.

3. Gokim: The language was first spelled as Goquim. It's a very strange looking language. To make plural you have to add an -om and that's all I know about it! Below are the same three sample sentences in Gokim:

Goquimu kuin Omeina na. Duitina goquimen dilde nalla. Oste dilde Nikhil Sinha na.
(Gokim is a simple language. I'm learning Gokim. My name is Nikhil Sinha.)

Fortunately, there is still some information left on how the language works on this page

4. Cannic: This is the best documented, if you are a linguist, of all of Nikhil's languages currently available on the internet. I believe there is sufficient material on this website for an expert but for me, who is only casually interested in languages, it's far from being something I could learn the language from.

Again, the same sentences in Cannic:

Kánika astis á simplán lánguéźa. Áma larning Kánika. Ámos náma astis Nikil Sinhá non.

(Cannic is a simple language. I'm learning Cannic. My name is Nikhil Sinha.)

To me, it's both heart-warming and disappointing at the same time to learn about these projects.  'Heart-warming' because they show Europeans aren't the only ones who are making conlangs, 'disappointing' because these non-European projects aren't easily visible.

Sunday, 6 February 2011

How I've dealt with Foreign Languages so far

If my brain isn’t fooling me then the first foreign language I stumbled across was Gujrati. 

I still remember that day. I was reading a magazine called Rishi Prasad. On the back of the magazine was a bibliography in several languages. Of those languages, I found the script of Gujrati resembling Devanagri somewhat. Some of the letters were identical and there wasn’t to be found the horizontal line over words. I was thrilled. I don’t remember how long it took me but I managed to decipher the script with the help of several other magazines I had. 

I have forgotten how old I was when I did that but I do know one thing: the next encounter with another foreign language would have to wait for several more years.

The second foreign language, alphabet to be more precise, I accidentally found was Russian. It happened something like this: my sister had borrowed an Oxford English Dictionary (1990 Edition) from my friend’s sister. It was kept on my table. I picked up the dictionary and, for the second time, found two strange looking alphabet listed at the end of 1000 pages+ thick dictionary. Over one the tables was written The Greek Alphabet in bold and the next page included a table of the Russian Alphabet.

I was thrilled to find that. Immediately, I sat on the chair besides the table and started cramming the Cyrillic script. I took me around 90 minutes but I managed to cram all of them. I showed off my newly acquired knowledge to fellow students at the physics class.

This time, however, I didn’t do nothing. Within a few days of finding and having learned the Russian alphabet, I went to the local library. There, I tried my best but couldn’t find a book on learning the language. I had to give up my plans to study Russian because I didn’t have the money to buy a book from the market and the library didn’t have any.

Fortunately (or not so fortunately), I found a book on French in the library and immediately I started learning French. After only a few days, I found French wasn’t the only foreign language in the world and there also exists another language called German. That was the first time, I could choose and I chose to go with German. Hardly I had had the time to go beyond the chapter of Colloquial German, I found Spanish.

So impressed I was with the language that I decided to learn Spanish instead. I learned a couple of dozen words and whoa! There was a book on Russian in the library!

Once again, I did the same mistake, got the whole course photocopied and set out to learn Russian. The neuron wires that contain the details of what happened afterward are now all tangled so I don’t remember why I left studying Russian.

The next language I decided to learn was Arabic. I stole (I knew it's wrong but I didn’t have the money then) G W Thatcher’s Arabic Grammar from the library and started learning the language. Again, I couldn’t go past the alphabet before I gave up. But as a consequence of my ten-days-study, I was now able to read Urdu.

The memory of what happened next is murky but I remember picking up French, German, Russian, Spanish, Persian, Chinese and Japanese during the course of next couple of years and then abandoning them all after a study of one month or two.

During the same period, I found another language – Esperanto - in Paulo Coelho’s book The Alchemist. Given the nature of the book (fiction), I didn’t suspect that there would really be a language called Esperanto. So I was surprised to found out  that Esperanto was a real language; well not exactly the of kind such as Hindi or Russian still but people spoke it.

I read more about Esperanto and the sixteen-rule gimmick impressed me. I downloaded them in print and tried to master the language from those rules. As it should have been, I understood nothing.

After that, months passed before I could save enough money to download The Esperanto Teacher in print. Even this time, I lost interest in the language only after a couple of months. Fortunately, Esperanto is easy enough so I could learn some basic vocabulary and grammar. It’s been three years since that happened and I haven’t tried to relearn the language with such devotion in that period. Another eterna komencanto (eternal beginner) was added to the ranks of two million (?) Esperantists. 

A couple of months later I dropped out of college, left the home and even my city to live life my own way. Though it’s nothing to do with the Esperanto-fiasco but because of that, I was now having enough money to buy books.

After getting my first salary from my third employer (I’d bought The Alchemist with the first 100 rupees or 1.6 Euros I’d earned from freelancing) I went to a books market and bought Teach Yourself Mandarin Chinese by Elizabeth Scurfield.

I failed to learn Chinese too. Then I ordered Let’s Learn Esperanto and A Beginner’s Compact Dictionary of Esperanto, both authored by Dr. P V Ranganayakulu. Never read them because now I knew about Interlingua and wanted to learn it badly. 

So I got printouts of the Curso de Interlingua pro Comenciantes Anglophone from the website of Union Mundial pro Interlingua and before I could start learning it, I found Lojban. A week later, I was asking the owner of a local cyber-café how long it would take to print the whole Lojban for Beginners. I did the first chapter about pronunciation and then lost interest. Russian was once again attractive.

I bought a Russian-English Dictionary and half a dozen other books in easy Russian. Now, they are gathering dust on a recess in my room. 

Luck continued to be on my side and soon I had enough money to buy a computer. I bought it and simultaneously got a broadband internet connection. I was about a year ago. With internet at my disposal, I was now able to any language I wanted. Unfortunately, I digressed so much during the past year that I wasn’t able to learn any language.

Then, only last week, I announced (for the first time in my life) that I was going to learn Sambahsa and Japanese. It’s only been a week and I’ve already started thinking about quitting.

At first, I had desired to learn a language because I wanted to know how it feels to be live outside the Anglosphere. But I couldn’t locate the right country. Arabs are fanatics, Russians are xenophobic, Japanese hate foreigners, Latin Americans are illiterate, Germans are perfect, Chinese are… 

When I realized it was but propaganda, I tried again but failed again. Now, I think I know the reason. In fact there are two reasons: 
  1. Most of the books that I’ve found concentrate mainly on the spoken language but I prefer to read than to talk. Resistance comes from within. 
  2. After years of failure now I know that languages aren’t merely words attached together by strings of grammar rules. There is something more basic to them which affects the very way we view the world around us. When I try to learn a language besides the ones I know since I was a child (English, Punjabi, Hindi/Urdu), I feel my worldview threatened and I immediately give up.
Now, what’s disturbing me is: why do I keep on trying time and again when  I know that languages have given me nothing but pain? Now, sometimes I wish I’d never looked into that dictionary.

Saturday, 5 February 2011

Nomaro de 20 Plej Potencaj Baratanoj laŭ The Indian Express

En la pasinta dimanĉo, The Indian Express eldonis nomaron de la 100 plej potencaj baratanoj por la jaro 2011.

Laŭ la gazeto, 30 novaj nomoj aldoniĝis en sia ĉi jara nomaro. Kompare, 36 novaj nomoj ennomariĝis en la nomaro de 2010. Ankaŭ la unuaj 30 nomoj montras, ke la registaro ne estas tiom forta, kiom ĝi estis en 2010. Eĉ la vico de la barata ĉefministro, Manmohan Singh, ne estas unua sed tria.

Ĉe la unua vico estas la Ĉefa Juĝisto de Barato. Li politike potenciĝis, kiam li anoncis sian decidon ke la verdikto de la Allahbad-a Alta Juĝejo pri Ayodhya estas justa kaj la registaro devas agi laŭ ĝi.

"Ĉi tempe, personoj, kiuj apartenas al la opozicio aŭ la esploranta ĵurnalismo, estas pli influaj al multaj ministroj."

Sube, vi trovos la nomojn de nur 20 plej potencaj baratanoj kun propraj siaj aĝoj, fotoj kaj oficoj:



1. S H Kapadia
Aĝo: 63
Ofico: Ĉefa Juĝisto de Barato



 
2. Sonia Gandhi
Aĝo: 61
Ofico: Prezidanto de Congress Party (Kongresa Partio)







3. Manmohan Singh
Aĝo: 78
Ofico: Ĉefministro de Barato



4. Sushma Swaraj
Aĝo: 59
Ofico: Estro de Opozicio en Rajya Sabha (Malalta Parliamento)



5. Rahul Gandhi
Aĝo: 40
Ofico: Generala Sekretario de Kongresa Partio




6. Nitish Kumar
Aĝo: 59
Ofico: Ŝtatministro de Bihar




7. Mamata Banerjee
Aĝo: 56
Ofico: Ministro pri Fervoja Transportsistemo en Barato




8. P Chindambaram
Aĝo: 65
Ofico: Ministro pri Homaj Aferoj de la Barata Uniono


9. Mukesh Ambani
Aĝo: 53
Ofico: Ĉefa Gvindanta Oficulo kaj Generala Administranto de Reliance Industriaro



10. Pranab Mukherjee
Aĝo: 75
Ofico: Ministro pri Financaj Aferoj de Barata Uniono







11. D Subbarao
Aĝo: 61
Ofico: Gubernatoro de la Centra-Banko de Barato




12. Jairam Ramesh
Aĝo: 56
Ofico: Uniona Ministro pri Naturaj Ĉirkaŭaĵoj





13. Arun Jaitley
Aĝo: 58
Ofico: Estro de Opozicio en Rajya Sabha (Alta Parliamento)






14. A K Antony
Aĝo: 70
Ofico: Ministro pri Defendaj Aferoj





15. M S Dhoni
Aĝo: 29
Ofico: Kapitano de la Barata Kriketa Teamo 






 16. J Jayalalithaa
Aĝo: 62
Ofico: Estro de AIADMK (politika partio en Tamil Nadu)









17. Ahmed Patel
Aĝo: 61
Ofico: Politika Sekretario de Sonia Gandhi





18. Narendra Modi
Aĝo: 61
Ofico: Ŝtatministro de Gujrat






19. Azim Premji
Aĝo: 65
Ofico: Ĉefa Gvindanta Oficulo de Wipro





20. Jaganmohan Reddy
Aĝo: 39
Ofico: Politikisto








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