Friday, 18 February 2011

Understanding Sambahsa Pronouns 2

Hi again! This time, our focus will be on understanding the pronouns in the third and fourth categories in Sambahsa. So let's begin with the third category or His-Her pronouns.

Imagine a ten-year-old who starts playing with the computer of his elder sister. What will be the reaction of the elder sister: "Hey! It's my computer!" or "Hey! It's I computer!"?

Again, it wouldn't be I computer but my computer because that's how English works. I-We pronouns change into His-Her pronouns when you want to show you own something or have a relation to someone, as in 'my brother' or 'my friend.'

The same happens in Sambahsa too! So the sister of the ten-year-old would say this in Sambahsa:

Hey! Tod est mien computer.
Hey! That's my computer.

Hey! Tod est noster* computer.
Hey! That's our computer.

Hey! Tod est tien computer.
Hey! That's your (one person's) computer.

Hey! Tod est voster* computer.
Hey! That's your (a group's) computer.

Hey! Tod est eys computer.
Hey! That's his computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

Hey! Tod est ays computer.
Hey! That's her computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

Hey! Tod est ids computer.
Hey! That's its (say a robot) computer.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer

Hey! Tod est el computer.
Hey! That's his (an alien's) computer.

Do you remember an alien is someone whose gender isn't known? If not, having a quick look at  Understanding Sambahsa Pronouns 1 will help you.

Hey! Tod est ir computer.
Hey! That's their computer.

* = Notice that in English I haven't written that is but have used its short form: that's. In Sambahsa, noster and voster have their short forms too: nies and vies. There is no difference whatsoever in their meanings and it's all upon you to decide which form to use.

Here's a table of His-Her pronouns:

Mien- My; Noster or Nies - Our

Tien - Your; Voster or Vies - Your

Eys - His; Ir - Thier (males)

Ays - Her; Ir - Their (females)

Ids - Its; Ir - Their (robots')

Els - X's (alien's) ; Ir - XX's (aliens')

Okay! So let's move on to the fourth category of pronouns or To-him To-her pronouns. Suppose Fatima comes to you to ask for a book and you give her the book. How would you put that in English: 'I gave Fatima a book.' or 'I gave a book to Fatima.'?

In this case, both sentences are correct. In Sambahsa, when someone receives something or is directly affected by what you do, there's a special pronoun for that someone. Grammarians would express it this way: the recipient of direct object.

Don't worry if you don't understand that. The following sentences will help you get clearer about these fourth category pronouns:

Is daht mi un buk.
He gives (to) me a book.

Is daht nos un buk.
He give (to) us a book.

Is daht tib un buk.
He gives (to) you a book.

Is daht vos un buk.
He gives (to) you (you are a group) a book.

Is daht ei un buk.
He gives (to) him a book.

Is daht ibs un buk.
He gives (to) them (males) a book.

Is daht ay un buk.
He gives (to) her a book.

Is daht iabs un buk.
He gives (to) them (females) a book.

Is daht ei un buk.
He gives (to) it (a robot) a book.

Is daht ibs un buk.
He gives (to) them (robots) a book.

Is daht al un buk.
He gives (to) X (an alien) a book.

Is daht im un buk.
He gives (to) XX (aliens) a book.

To is redundant in English sentences but in Sambahsa, it's shown by the use of fourth category of pronouns or To-him To-her pronouns.

Again, here's a table of these pronouns:

Mi - (to) Me; Nos - (to) Us

Tib - (to) You; Vos - (to) You

Ei - (to) Him; Ibs - (to) Them

Ay - (to) Her; Iabs - (to) Them

Ei - (to) It; Ibs - (to) Them

Al - (to) X; Im - (to) XX

And with this, we are done with the simple pronouns. In the subsequent posts I'll try to explain Demonstrative (this, that) pronouns and Interrogative (who, what) pronouns.